Medical Glossary - A through H
This goes through the most common sports injuries, treatments, and procedures. I thought it was facscinating and this should be a sticky
Abduction: Movement of a joint away from the center of the body.
AC Joint (Acromioclavicular joint): Joint of the shoulder where acromion process of the shoulder blade and the distal end of the collarbone meet; most shoulder separations occur at this point.
Adduction: Movement of a joint toward the center of the body.
Adhesion: Abnormal adherence of collagen fibers to surrounding structures during immobilization following trauma or as a complication of surgery which restricts normal elasticity of the structures involved; or scar tissue which forms after trauma or surgery which can restrict normal motion.
Anabolic Steroids: Steroids that promote tissue growth by creating protein in an attempt to enhance muscle growth. The main anabolic steroid is testosterone (male sex hormone).
Anaerobic: Exercise without the use of oxygen as an energy source; short bursts of vigorous exercise.
Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL): A primary stabilizing ligament within the center of the knee joint that prevents hyperextension and excessive rotation of the joint. A complete tear of the ACL necessitating reconstruction could require up to 12 months of rehabilitation.
Anti Inflammatory: Any agent which prevents inflammation, such as aspirin or ibuprofen.
Arteriogram: A film demonstrating arteries after injection of a dye.
Arthrogram: X?ray technique for joints using air and/or dye injected into the affected area; useful in diagnosing meniscus tears of the knee and rotator cuff tears of the shoulder.
Arthroscope: An instrument used to visualize the interior of a joint cavity.
Arthroscopy: A surgical examination of the internal structures of a joint by means of observation through an arthroscope. An arthroscopic procedure can be used to remove or repair damaged tissue or as a diagnostic procedure in order to inspect the extent of any damage or confirm a diagnosis.
Atrophy: To shrivel or shrink from disuse; as in muscular atrophy.
Baker’s Cyst: Localized swelling of a bursa sac in the back of the knee as a result of fluid that has escaped from the knee capsule. A Baker’s cyst indicates that there is a trauma inside the knee joint that leads to excessive fluid production.
Bone Scan: An imaging procedure in which a radioactive?labeled substance is injected into the body to determine the status of a bone injury. If the radioactive substance is taken up by the bone at the injury site, the injury will show as a ‘hot spot’ on the scan image. The bone scan is particularly useful in the diagnosis of stress fractures.
Bursa: A fluid?filled sac located in areas where friction is likely to occur. The bursa sac minimizes the friction, for example, between a tendon and bone.
Cartilage: Smooth, slippery substance preventing two ends of bones from rubbing together and grating. Most joints use this to cover bones next to each other. A meniscus is made of cartilage.
CAT Scan (Computerized Tomography): Use of a computer to produce a cross-sectional view of the anatomical part being investigated from x?ray data.
Chondromalacia: Roughening of the articular cartilage. Best known for the roughening of the underside of the kneecap, which can occur in any kneecap injury.
Clavicle: Collarbone; the bone connecting the breastbone with the shoulder blade.
Coccyx: The ‘tailbone,’ a group of four vertebrae that are fused together to form a small triangular bone, located at the terminal end of the spine.
Concussion: Jarring injury of the brain resulting in dysfunction. It can be graded as mild, moderate or severe, depending on loss of consciousness, amnesia and loss of equilibrium.
Contusion: An injury to a muscle and tissues caused by a blow from a blunt object.
Corticosteroids: Used to suppress joint inflammation and inflammation in a bursa or near tendons.
Cryotherapy: A treatment with the use of cold.
Cyst: Abnormal sac containing liquid or semi?solid matter.
Degenerative Joint Disease: Changes in the joint surfaces as a result of repetitive trauma and ‘wear and tear’.
Deltoid Ligament: Ligament that connects the tibia to bones of the medial aspect of the foot and is primarily responsible for stability of the ankle on the medial side. Is sprained less frequently than other ankle ligaments.
Deltoid Muscle: Muscles at the top of the arm, just below the shoulder, responsible for shoulder motions in the front, side and back.
Disc Intervertebral: A flat, rounded plate between each vertebrae of the spine. The disc consists of a thick fiber ring which surrounds a soft gel like interior. It functions as a cushion and shock absorber for the spinal column.
Dislocation: Complete displacement of joint surfaces.
Electromyogram (EMG): Test to determine nerve function.
Epicondylitis: Inflammation in the elbow due to overuse. Common in tennis players (outer part of elbow) and golfers (inner part of elbow).
Etiology: Study of the cause of injury and disease.
Extension: Action of straightening of a joint as achieved by an extensor muscle.
Fascia: A connective tissue sheath consisting of fibrous tissue and fat which unites the skin to the underlying tissue.
Fat Percentage: The amount of body weight that is adipose, fat tissue. Fat percentage can be calculated by underwater weighing, measuring select skinfold thickness or by analyzing electrical impedance.
Femur: Thighbone; longest bone in the body.
Fibula: Smaller of the two bones in the lower leg; runs from the knee to the ankle along the outside of the lower leg.
Flexibility: The ability of muscle to relax and yield to stretch forces.
Fracture: Breach in continuity of a bone. Types of fractures include simple, compound, comminuted, greenstick, incomplete, impacted, longitudinal, oblique, stress or transverse.
Glenohumeral: The shoulder girdle; consists of the glenoid capsule, head of the humerus and labrum.
Glenoid: Cavity of the scapula into which the head of the humerus fits to form the shoulder girdle.
Glenoid Labrum: A rim of fibrocartilaginous tissue attached around the margin of the glenoid fossa.
Grade One Injury: A mild injury in which ligament, tendon or other musculoskeletal tissue may have been stretched, but not torn or otherwise disrupted.
Grade Two Injury: A moderate injury in which musculoskeletal tissue has been partially, but not totally torn, causing appreciable limitation in function of the injured tissue.
Grade Three Injury: A severe injury in which tissue loss has been significant, and in many cases, totally torn or otherwise disrupted, causing a virtual loss of function.
Groin: Junction of the thigh and abdomen, location of muscles that rotate, flex and adduct the hip.
Hammer Toe: Condition when the first digit of a toe is at a different angle that the remaining digits of the same toe.
Hamstring: Category of muscle that runs from the buttocks to the knee along the back of the thigh. It functions to flex the knee and is often times injured as a result of improper conditioning or lack of muscle flexibility.
Hemarthrosis: Accumulation of blood within a joint as a result of an acute injury.
Hematoma: Mass produced by an accumulation of coagulated blood in a cavity or in soft tissues.
Hip Pointer: Contusion to the iliac crest.
Hydrotherapy: Treatment using water.
Hyperextension: Extreme extension of a limb or body part.